An innovative way to treat languages and systems, describing them as information structures, which allows for a comparative study of their properties, despite the obvious differences among their natures. To unveil some of the mysteries underlying all sort of languages ?from music to natural languages and from bi-dimensional graphical representations to the synthesis of mathematics? a wide range of representations and information transfer phenomena are described at several levels of detail. Languages, considered as the expression of complex systems, are analyzed by means of ingeniously developed algorithms and methods. A vast field for applications opens in front of these universal analysis tools, promising a dense learning time to come.
Multilingualism is becoming a crucial issue in our society, especially in the European context. Furthermore, research shows that there is a tendency towards raising children with more than one language (Claire 2012). This brings many new aspects to education, theoretical concepts and approaches to multilingualism. Therefore, (multi-)linguists try to illuminate multilingualism from different points of view and try to explore and explain different paths of language development academically. The theoretical part of this thesis will present theories of multilingualism and language complexity. This theoretical background provides the basis on which the author of this thesis created suggestions on how to illustrate and visualise language complexity. The main basis for the created illustrations will be the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism by Herdina and Jessner (2002). Furthermore, theoretical information concerning language monitoring and possibilities to illustrate language monitoring will be presented. Finally, the last part of this thesis will show that it is possible to teach multilingual skills at school.
Rivers State is located in Southern Nigeria, with 23 local governments, and with 5.1 million people (National Population Commission, 2007). The state represents a typical example of the linguistic complexity of the Nigerian nation; this is because there are over twenty indigenous languages along-side the English language and Pidgin English (a blend of the English language and Indigenous languages)used for different communicative purposes in the State. This book reports an empirical investigation of the effects of Multilingualism on language choice for news delivery in Rivers State, Nigeria. It presents interesting details of the sociolinguistic factors responsible for the adoption of language(s) in this important domain (media) of language use. It also describes and analyses the attitudes of the people of the State to the various languages used for news delivery.
The only textbook of its kind, An Introduction to the Languages of the World is designed to introduce beginning linguistics students, who now typically start their study with little background in languages, to the variety of the languages of the world.
MIVAR: Transition from Productions to Bipartite Graphs MIVAR Nets and Practical Realization of Automated Constructor of Algorithms Handling More than Three Million Production Rules. The theoretical transition from the graphs of production systems to the bipartite graphs of the MIVAR nets is shown. Examples of the implementation of the MIVAR nets in the formalisms of matrixes and graphs are given. The linear computational complexity of algorithms for automated building of objects and rules of the MIVAR nets is theoretically proved. On the basis of the MIVAR nets the UDAV software complex is developed, handling more than 1.17 million objects and more than 3.5 million rules on ordinary computers. The results of experiments that confirm a linear computational complexity of the MIVAR method of information processing are given.
16.–17. märtsil 2012 toimus Eesti Rahvusraamatukogus rahvusvaheline ja interdistsiplinaarne konverents, mille pealkirjaks ja teemaks oli „Väikerahvaste keelte riskid ja võimalused“. Ürituse patrooniks oli Riigikogu esimees pr Ene Ergma, president Toomas Hendrik Ilves saatis kirjaliku läkituse konverentsi ja sellel osalejate tervituseks. Konverentsil osales kokku 20 teadlast 9 erinevast riigist: Eestile lisaks Gröönimaalt (Taani), Walesist (Ühendkuningriik), Prantsusmaalt, Itaaliast, Ungarist, Lätist, Soomest ja Venemaalt. Ettekanded tegelesid osalt väikerahvaste keelte ellujäämisstrateegiatega, osalt aga keele ja kultuuri erinevate ilmnemisvormide ning nende omavaheliste seoste dünaamikaga, millest pika peale keelte jätkusuutlikkus paljuski oleneb.
The purpose of this study is to provide a rich description of the role of languages, especially indigenous languages in the secondary curriculum in Bangladesh. Through this research I seek to identify the role of mother languages in education. Bangladesh has a centrally designed curriculum that does not focus on minority languages. Though tribal languages are not included in both the intended and operational curriculum, it affects the classroom teaching practices as well as the tribal students’ life. As the instructional language is Bangla, the cultures, identities and past experiences of the tribal students are not valued in daily classroom learning activities. Drawing on an understanding of curriculum as a tool for the social control of knowledge, I show how the secondary language curriculum promotes social inequality by the intellectual domination of Bangla and English over less prestigious tribal languages by not including indigenous languages, culture and values.
Simple behaviours that unclutter your mind and help you realise your true potential Awaken your passion and tap into your inner greatness as you remove the metaphorical clutter from your life with Simple Thinking. You'll learn how to expand your mind and understand your true potential through the power of thinking simply, while stripping back the jargon and digging to the core of any obstacle in your way. Let's be honest, life is full of unnecessary complexity and it's left most of us confused, angry and disenfranchised. This book will help you to remove the baggage, cut through the clutter and begin your smooth path to success. Learn how to: Live and act with resiliency, authenticity and passion Learn to trust your instincts again and see the world through new eyes Recalibrate your thoughts, behaviours and actions Declutter your mind, streamline your day and be successful at life Simple wisdom, simply shared, is personal development unplugged – and when you begin peeling back the layers to expose the heart of the problem, you become well-equipped to devise a simpler, yet more effective solution. Simple Thinking will help you in achieving this state of clarity and confidence.
Explains the four dimensions of effective leadership for leaders in the public sphere There is a wealth of advice available for corporate leaders, but little in the way of leadership guidance for those in government agencies. Leading Forward fills that gap by providing a development framework and assessment tool based on the four dimensions of effective leadership—empowerment, fairness, leaders, and supervisors. These four dimensions are critical competencies that leaders must develop in order to succeed now and in the future. Based on years of working with agency leaders at all levels of government and the latest assessment data from the Office of Personnel Management, this practical resource includes a review of the current core leadership competencies and a detailed look at the gaps between actual and expected execution. Offers unique and uncommon leadership guidance for those in the public sector Includes examples, exercises, techniques, and case studies, as well as interviews with past and current leaders Ideal for government agency executives and students in leadership and professional development programs Leading effectively in a government agency is different than leading in the private sphere. Leading Forward offers a practical and effective framework for developing great leaders for the public good.
Revision with unchanged content. Traditional contrastive rhetoric research is often restricted to the textual level of analysis. By providing both a textual and contextual view of genre across languages and cultures, this book presents a framework for contrastive rhetoric research which moves beyond the text into the context of production and interpretation of the text. The book examines the textual patterning of Australian and Chinese commentaries and interpersonal and intertextual features of the texts, as well as considers possible contextual factors which might contribute to the formation of the newspaper commentaries in the two different languages and cultures. This analysis contributes towards answering the questions: How do writers in different languages and cultures position themselves in relation to the topics that they write about? How do they manipulate the topic and address their readers by the use of various linguistic strategies and devices? How do the roles of the press and opinion discourses mediate and influence constructions of the Chinese and English commentaries? How do discourses of terrorism in these two settings relate to textual and intertextual practices? The book is addressed to researchers in contrastive rhetoric and discourse research. It is also directed towards scholars in intercultural communication and translation.
The study of foreign languages is important in a globalized world. The study of foreign languages in Albania depends on the political, economic and diplomatic context of the country. When Albania was a communist country, Russian was the most spoken language in the country because the Soviet Union was the dominant country in the Eastern European communist bloc. After the fall of communism, Russian lost its influence and was replaced by English. The linguistic policy of the Albanian Government is influenced by the European Linguistic policy, as a kind of supranational policy. But, the study of languages depends also on personal reasons like to study, work and live abroad, travel and many other subjective reasons. Anyway, the study of foreign languages is interesting because it connects us to other cultures and people.
Many languages have been described insightfully within the rubrics of Chomsky's generative grammar to test the validity of the framework. The studies carried out have contributed to the development of this grammar and account for the change in perspective in its evolution from 1957 (Syntactic Structure) to the present (the Minimalist Program). African languages are yet to contribute substantially to the development of generative grammar. The book surveys and describes a wide range of linguistic phenomena, in particular, the nature of syntactic categories as the building blocks and units of grammatical analysis in these languages within the generative framework. It maintains that many functional heads that introduce lexical categories are characteristically multifunctional. Some have heterogeneous origins and heterogeneous positions in the clause. The multifunctionality and hetergeneous nature of these markers may affect clause typing and the interpretation of a sentence. Even where a marker has a fixed position, it may show variation in its phonology. There are properties exhibited by these languages that cannot be straightforwardly accounted for within generative grammar.